• 肽瑞禾

焦慮、憂鬱和微生物組:腸道肽的作用


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引用 | SpringerLink報導


Anxiety, Depression, and the Microbiome: A Role for Gut Peptides

Abstract 腸道和大腦之間複雜的雙向通信由不同系統精心協調,包括內分泌、免疫、自主神經和腸神經系統。此外,越來越多的證據支持微生物組和微生物群衍生分子在調節此類相互作用中的作用;然而,支持這種影響的機制才剛剛開始得到解決。微生物群-腸道肽相互作用在調節腸道-大腦信號傳導方面具有重要意義。鑑於腸 - 腦軸在各種腦部疾病(例如焦慮和抑鬱)中的新作用,在該軸的背景下了解從腸道釋放的肽激素與腸道細菌之間雙向相互作用的貢獻非常重要。確實,胃腸道是哺乳動物最大的內分泌器官,分泌數十種不同的信號分子,包括肽。體循環中的腸道肽可以結合免疫細胞和迷走神經末梢上的同源受體,從而實現腸道與大腦的間接交流。腸道肽濃度不僅受腸道微生物群信號的調節,而且還根據腸道微生物群的組成而變化。在這篇綜述中,我們將討論腸道微生物群作為焦慮和抑鬱的調節劑,並探討腸道衍生肽作為信號分子在微生物組 - 腸道 - 大腦交流中的作用。在這裡,我們總結了微生物群與腸道激素和內分泌肽的潛在相互作用,包括神經肽 Y、肽 YY、胰多肽、膽囊收縮素、胰高血糖素樣肽、促腎上腺皮質激素釋放因子、催產素和生長素釋放肽在微生物組到大腦的信號傳導中。總之,腸道肽是健康和壓力相關精神疾病中微生物群-腸道-大腦信號傳導的重要調節劑。 The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota–gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut–brain signaling. Given the emerging role of the gut–brain axis in a variety of brain disorders, such as anxiety and depression, it is important to understand the contribution of bidirectional interactions between peptide hormones released from the gut and intestinal bacteria in the context of this axis. Indeed, the gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in mammals, secreting dozens of different signaling molecules, including peptides. Gut peptides in the systemic circulation can bind cognate receptors on immune cells and vagus nerve terminals thereby enabling indirect gut–brain communication. Gut peptide concentrations are not only modulated by enteric microbiota signals, but also vary according to the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we will discuss the gut microbiota as a regulator of anxiety and depression, and explore the role of gut-derived peptides as signaling molecules in microbiome–gut–brain communication. Here, we summarize the potential interactions of the microbiota with gut hormones and endocrine peptides, including neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide, corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and ghrelin in microbiome-to-brain signaling. Together, gut peptides are important regulators of microbiota–gut–brain signaling in health and stress-related psychiatric illnesses.


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